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Traveling salesman problem: TSP is a problem that tries to find a tour of minimum cost that visits every city once. In this visualization, it is assumed that the underlying graph is a complete graph with (near-)metric distance (meaning the distance function satisfies the triangle inequality) by taking the distance of two points and round it to the nearest integer.

Remarks: By default, we show e-Lecture Mode for first time (or non logged-in) visitor.

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View the visualisation of TSP algorithm here.

Originally, all edges in the input graph are colored with the grey.

Throughout the visualization, traversed edge will be highlighted with orange.

Pro-tip: Since you are not logged-in, you may be a first time visitor who are not aware of the following keyboard shortcuts to navigate this e-Lecture mode: [PageDown] to advance to the next slide, [PageUp] to go back to the previous slide, [Esc] to toggle between this e-Lecture mode and exploration mode.

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There are two different sources for specifying an input graph:

1. Draw Graph: You can put several points on the drawing box, but you must not draw any edge to ensure the (near-)metric property of the graph. After you have finished putting the points, the edges will be drawn automatically for you after.
2. Example Graphs: You can select from the list of graphs to get you started.

Another pro-tip: We designed this visualization and this e-Lecture mode to look good on 1366x768 resolution or larger (typical modern laptop resolution in 2017). We recommend using Google Chrome to access VisuAlgo. Go to full screen mode (F11) to enjoy this setup. However, you can use zoom-in (Ctrl +) or zoom-out (Ctrl -) to calibrate this.

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Bruteforce: It tries all (V-1)! permutation of vertices (not all V! since it does not matter where we start from). It enumerates all possibilities by doing a dfs search with parameters similar to those of Held-Karp algorithm, that is, the dfs search will return the value of the tour starting from current vertex to all vertices that we have not already visited.

Time complexity: O(V * (V - 1)!) = O(V!)
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Dynamic Programming: It uses a widely known algorithm called Held-Karp. In this visualization, it is implemented as a dfs search that is the same with the bruteforce algorithm, but with memoization to cache the answers. This dramatically brings down the run time complexity to O(V^2 * 2^V).

Time complexity: O(V^2 * 2^V).

Note that for N = 10, this algorithm takes roughly ~(100 * 2^10) = 102K operations while the bruteforce algorithm takes roughly ~(10!) = 3628800 operations, around 30 times faster.
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Approximation: There are two approximation algorithms available, a 2-approximation algorithm and a 1.5-approximation algorithm that is also well known as Christofides Algorithm.
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As the action is being carried out, each step will be described in the status panel.

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e-Lecture: The content of this slide is hidden and only available for legitimate CS lecturer worldwide. Drop an email to visualgo.info at gmail dot com if you want to activate this CS lecturer-only feature and you are really a CS lecturer (show your University staff profile).

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Control the animation with the player controls! Keyboard shortcuts are:

Spacebar: play/pause/replay
Left/right arrows: step backward/step forward
-/+: decrease/increase speed
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Note that if you notice any bug in this visualization or if you want to request for a new visualization feature, do not hesitate to drop an email to the project leader: Dr Steven Halim via his email address: stevenhalim at gmail dot com.

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Нарисовать Граф

Образцы Графов

Bruteforce

Dynamic Programming

Approximation

K4

K5

K8

CS4234 Tutorial Three

2-approximation TSP

1.5-approximation TSP

#### О нас

VisuAlgo was conceptualised in 2011 by Dr Steven Halim as a tool to help his students better understand data structures and algorithms, by allowing them to learn the basics on their own and at their own pace.

VisuAlgo contains many advanced algorithms that are discussed in Dr Steven Halim's book ('Competitive Programming', co-authored with his brother Dr Felix Halim) and beyond. Today, some of these advanced algorithms visualization/animation can only be found in VisuAlgo.

Though specifically designed for National University of Singapore (NUS) students taking various data structure and algorithm classes (e.g. CS1010, CS1020, CS2010, CS2020, CS3230, and CS3230), as advocators of online learning, we hope that curious minds around the world will find these visualisations useful too.

VisuAlgo is not designed to work well on small touch screens (e.g. smartphones) from the outset due to the need to cater for many complex algorithm visualizations that require lots of pixels and click-and-drag gestures for interaction. The minimum screen resolution for a respectable user experience is 1024x768 and only the landing page is relatively mobile-friendly.

VisuAlgo is an ongoing project and more complex visualisations are still being developed.

The most exciting development is the automated question generator and verifier (the online quiz system) that allows students to test their knowledge of basic data structures and algorithms. The questions are randomly generated via some rules and students' answers are instantly and automatically graded upon submission to our grading server. This online quiz system, when it is adopted by more CS instructors worldwide, should technically eliminate manual basic data structure and algorithm questions from typical Computer Science examinations in many Universities. By setting a small (but non-zero) weightage on passing the online quiz, a CS instructor can (significantly) increase his/her students mastery on these basic questions as the students have virtually infinite number of training questions that can be verified instantly before they take the online quiz. The training mode currently contains questions for 12 visualization modules. We will soon add the remaining 8 visualization modules so that every visualization module in VisuAlgo have online quiz component.

Another active branch of development is the internationalization sub-project of VisuAlgo. We want to prepare a database of CS terminologies for all English text that ever appear in VisuAlgo system. This is a big task and requires crowdsourcing. Once the system is ready, we will invite VisuAlgo visitors to contribute, especially if you are not a native English speaker. Currently, we have also written public notes about VisuAlgo in various languages: zh, id, kr, vn, th.

#### Команда

Руководитель Проекта и Советник (июль 2011 по настоящее время)
Dr Steven Halim, Senior Lecturer, School of Computing (SoC), National University of Singapore (NUS)
Dr Felix Halim, Software Engineer, Google (Mountain View)

Научные Проекты Студентов Программы Бакалаврата 1 (Jul 2011-Apr 2012)
Koh Zi Chun, Victor Loh Bo Huai

Final Year Project/UROP students 1 (Jul 2012-Dec 2013)
Phan Thi Quynh Trang, Peter Phandi, Albert Millardo Tjindradinata, Nguyen Hoang Duy

Final Year Project/UROP students 2 (Jun 2013-Apr 2014)
Rose Marie Tan Zhao Yun, Ivan Reinaldo

Научные Проекты Студентов Программы Бакалаврата 2 (May 2014-Jul 2014)
Jonathan Irvin Gunawan, Nathan Azaria, Ian Leow Tze Wei, Nguyen Viet Dung, Nguyen Khac Tung, Steven Kester Yuwono, Cao Shengze, Mohan Jishnu

Final Year Project/UROP students 3 (Jun 2014-Apr 2015)
Erin Teo Yi Ling, Wang Zi

Final Year Project/UROP students 4 (Jun 2016-Dec 2017)
Truong Ngoc Khanh, John Kevin Tjahjadi, Gabriella Michelle, Muhammad Rais Fathin Mudzakir

List of translators who have contributed ≥100 translations can be found at statistics page.

Acknowledgements
Этот проект стал возможным благодаря щедрому гранту по Улучшению Процесса Обучения, выданного центром Национального университета Сингапура по Развитию Процесса Обучения (CDTL).

#### Условия использования

VisuAlgo is free of charge for Computer Science community on earth. If you like VisuAlgo, the only payment that we ask of you is for you to tell the existence of VisuAlgo to other Computer Science students/instructors that you know =) via Facebook, Twitter, course webpage, blog review, email, etc.

If you are a data structure and algorithm student/instructor, you are allowed to use this website directly for your classes. If you take screen shots (videos) from this website, you can use the screen shots (videos) elsewhere as long as you cite the URL of this website (http://visualgo.net) and/or list of publications below as reference. However, you are NOT allowed to download VisuAlgo (client-side) files and host it on your own website as it is plagiarism. As of now, we do NOT allow other people to fork this project and create variants of VisuAlgo. Using the offline copy of (client-side) VisuAlgo for your personal usage is fine.

Note that VisuAlgo's online quiz component is by nature has heavy server-side component and there is no easy way to save the server-side scripts and databases locally. Currently, the general public can only use the 'training mode' to access these online quiz system. Currently the 'test mode' is a more controlled environment for using these randomly generated questions and automatic verification for a real examination in NUS. Other interested CS instructor should contact Steven if you want to try such 'test mode'.

List of Publications

This work has been presented briefly at the CLI Workshop at the ACM ICPC World Finals 2012 (Poland, Warsaw) and at the IOI Conference at IOI 2012 (Sirmione-Montichiari, Italy). You can click this link to read our 2012 paper about this system (it was not yet called VisuAlgo back in 2012).

This work is done mostly by my past students. The most recent final reports are here: Erin, Wang Zi, Rose, Ivan.

Bug Reports or Request for New Features

VisuAlgo is not a finished project. Dr Steven Halim is still actively improving VisuAlgo. If you are using VisuAlgo and spot a bug in any of our visualization page/online quiz tool or if you want to request for new features, please contact Dr Steven Halim. His contact is the concatenation of his name and add gmail dot com.