7    VisuAlgo.net / /cyclefinding Login

Assume that you have a function f: S → S and any initial value x0 ∈ S
(in this visualization, we are restricted to f(x) = (A*x^2 + B*x + C) % M and x0 % M hence the function f has domain and range ∈ [0..M-1]).

The sequence of iterated function values:
{x0, x1 = f(x0), x2 = f(x1), ..., xi = f(xi-1), ...}
must eventually use the same value twice (cycle), i.e. a ≠ b such that xa = xb.
Afterwards, the sequence must continue by repeating the cycle of values from xa to xb-1.

Let mu (μ) be the smallest index and let lambda (λ) (the cycle length) be the smallest positive integer such that xμ = xμ+λ.

The cycle-finding problem: Find such μ and λ, given f and x0.

Remarks: By default, we show e-Lecture Mode for first time (or non logged-in) visitor.
Please login if you are a repeated visitor or register for an (optional) free account first.

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You can define custom function f(x) = (A*x2 + B*x + C) % M here.

1. Random: The function will be f(x) = (x2 - 1) % M and only M and the x0 are randomly generated.
2. Custom: You can specify the coefficients A, B, C of f(x) (ranging from -999 to 999), the modulo value M (ranging from 10 to 1000) and the initial value x0 (ranging from 0 to M-1).

You can also set custom x0, which must be ∈ [0..M-1].

Pro-tip: Since you are not logged-in, you may be a first time visitor who are not aware of the following keyboard shortcuts to navigate this e-Lecture mode: [PageDown] to advance to the next slide, [PageUp] to go back to the previous slide, [Esc] to toggle between this e-Lecture mode and exploration mode.

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Floyd's Tortoise-Hare Cycle-Finding is one algorithm that can solve this problem efficiently in both time and space complexities.

It just requires O(μ+λ) time and O(1) space to do the job.

Another pro-tip: We designed this visualization and this e-Lecture mode to look good on 1366x768 resolution or larger (typical modern laptop resolution in 2017). We recommend using Google Chrome to access VisuAlgo. Go to full screen mode (F11) to enjoy this setup. However, you can use zoom-in (Ctrl +) or zoom-out (Ctrl -) to calibrate this.

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This is the visualization of Floyd's Tortoise-Hare Cycle-Finding algorithm.

The shape of rho (ρ) of the sequence of iterated function values defined by f(x) and x0 nicely visualizes μ and λ.

VisuAlgo uses green vertices to represent the tortoise (t) and orange vertices to represent the hare (h).

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We start from x0.

While tortoise's pointer != hare's pointer, we advance tortoise/hare by one step/two steps to their next values by calling f(tortoise)/f(f(hare)).

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We reset hare back to x0 and keep tortoise at its current position.

Then, we iteratively advance both pointers to their next values by one step as this maintains the gap of tortoise and hare by .

The first time both pointers are equal tells us the value of μ.

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Again, we let tortoise stays in its current position and set hare next to it.

Then, we iteratively move hare to the next value by one step.

The first time both pointers are equal tells us the value of λ.

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The animation of this algorithm should clear up most questions involving this algorithm.

We will expand this e-Lecture slides to contain more information about this algorithm later.

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You are allowed to use/modify our implementation code for Floyd Cycle-Finding Algorithm:
UVa00350.cpp
UVa00350.java
UVa00350.py
UVa00350.ml

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As the action is being carried out, each step will be described in the status panel.

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e-Lecture: The content of this slide is hidden and only available for legitimate CS lecturer worldwide. Drop an email to visualgo.info at gmail dot com if you want to activate this CS lecturer-only feature and you are really a CS lecturer (show your University staff profile).

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Control the animation with the player controls! Keyboard shortcuts are:

Spacebar: play/pause/replay
Left/right arrows: step backward/step forward
-/+: decrease/increase speed
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Return to 'Exploration Mode' to start exploring!

Note that if you notice any bug in this visualization or if you want to request for a new visualization feature, do not hesitate to drop an email to the project leader: Dr Steven Halim via his email address: stevenhalim at gmail dot com.

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ランダム

Custom, f(x) = (*x2 + *x + ) % , x0 = 行く

#### VIsuAlgoについて

VisuAlgo was conceptualised in 2011 by Dr Steven Halim as a tool to help his students better understand data structures and algorithms, by allowing them to learn the basics on their own and at their own pace.

VisuAlgo contains many advanced algorithms that are discussed in Dr Steven Halim's book ('Competitive Programming', co-authored with his brother Dr Felix Halim) and beyond. Today, some of these advanced algorithms visualization/animation can only be found in VisuAlgo.

Though specifically designed for National University of Singapore (NUS) students taking various data structure and algorithm classes (e.g. CS1010, CS1020, CS2010, CS2020, CS3230, and CS3230), as advocators of online learning, we hope that curious minds around the world will find these visualisations useful too.

VisuAlgo is not designed to work well on small touch screens (e.g. smartphones) from the outset due to the need to cater for many complex algorithm visualizations that require lots of pixels and click-and-drag gestures for interaction. The minimum screen resolution for a respectable user experience is 1024x768 and only the landing page is relatively mobile-friendly.

VisuAlgo is an ongoing project and more complex visualisations are still being developed.

The most exciting development is the automated question generator and verifier (the online quiz system) that allows students to test their knowledge of basic data structures and algorithms. The questions are randomly generated via some rules and students' answers are instantly and automatically graded upon submission to our grading server. This online quiz system, when it is adopted by more CS instructors worldwide, should technically eliminate manual basic data structure and algorithm questions from typical Computer Science examinations in many Universities. By setting a small (but non-zero) weightage on passing the online quiz, a CS instructor can (significantly) increase his/her students mastery on these basic questions as the students have virtually infinite number of training questions that can be verified instantly before they take the online quiz. The training mode currently contains questions for 12 visualization modules. We will soon add the remaining 8 visualization modules so that every visualization module in VisuAlgo have online quiz component.

Another active branch of development is the internationalization sub-project of VisuAlgo. We want to prepare a database of CS terminologies for all English text that ever appear in VisuAlgo system. This is a big task and requires crowdsourcing. Once the system is ready, we will invite VisuAlgo visitors to contribute, especially if you are not a native English speaker. Currently, we have also written public notes about VisuAlgo in various languages: zh, id, kr, vn, th.

#### チーム

プロジェクトリーダー＆アドバイザー（2011年7月～現在)
Dr Steven Halim, Senior Lecturer, School of Computing (SoC), National University of Singapore (NUS)
Dr Felix Halim, Software Engineer, Google (Mountain View)

Undergraduate Student Researchers 1 (Jul 2011-Apr 2012)
Koh Zi Chun, Victor Loh Bo Huai

Final Year Project/UROP students 1 (Jul 2012-Dec 2013)
Phan Thi Quynh Trang, Peter Phandi, Albert Millardo Tjindradinata, Nguyen Hoang Duy

Final Year Project/UROP students 2 (Jun 2013-Apr 2014)
Rose Marie Tan Zhao Yun, Ivan Reinaldo

Undergraduate Student Researchers 2 (May 2014-Jul 2014)
Jonathan Irvin Gunawan, Nathan Azaria, Ian Leow Tze Wei, Nguyen Viet Dung, Nguyen Khac Tung, Steven Kester Yuwono, Cao Shengze, Mohan Jishnu

Final Year Project/UROP students 3 (Jun 2014-Apr 2015)
Erin Teo Yi Ling, Wang Zi

Final Year Project/UROP students 4 (Jun 2016-Dec 2017)
Truong Ngoc Khanh, John Kevin Tjahjadi, Gabriella Michelle, Muhammad Rais Fathin Mudzakir

List of translators who have contributed ≥100 translations can be found at statistics page.

Acknowledgements
This project is made possible by the generous Teaching Enhancement Grant from NUS Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning (CDTL).

#### 利用規約

VisuAlgo is free of charge for Computer Science community on earth. If you like VisuAlgo, the only payment that we ask of you is for you to tell the existence of VisuAlgo to other Computer Science students/instructors that you know =) via Facebook, Twitter, course webpage, blog review, email, etc.

If you are a data structure and algorithm student/instructor, you are allowed to use this website directly for your classes. If you take screen shots (videos) from this website, you can use the screen shots (videos) elsewhere as long as you cite the URL of this website (http://visualgo.net) and/or list of publications below as reference. However, you are NOT allowed to download VisuAlgo (client-side) files and host it on your own website as it is plagiarism. As of now, we do NOT allow other people to fork this project and create variants of VisuAlgo. Using the offline copy of (client-side) VisuAlgo for your personal usage is fine.

Note that VisuAlgo's online quiz component is by nature has heavy server-side component and there is no easy way to save the server-side scripts and databases locally. Currently, the general public can only use the 'training mode' to access these online quiz system. Currently the 'test mode' is a more controlled environment for using these randomly generated questions and automatic verification for a real examination in NUS. Other interested CS instructor should contact Steven if you want to try such 'test mode'.

List of Publications

This work has been presented briefly at the CLI Workshop at the ACM ICPC World Finals 2012 (Poland, Warsaw) and at the IOI Conference at IOI 2012 (Sirmione-Montichiari, Italy). You can click this link to read our 2012 paper about this system (it was not yet called VisuAlgo back in 2012).

This work is done mostly by my past students. The most recent final reports are here: Erin, Wang Zi, Rose, Ivan.

Bug Reports or Request for New Features

VisuAlgo is not a finished project. Dr Steven Halim is still actively improving VisuAlgo. If you are using VisuAlgo and spot a bug in any of our visualization page/online quiz tool or if you want to request for new features, please contact Dr Steven Halim. His contact is the concatenation of his name and add gmail dot com.